Authoritarian rule in latin america

Authoritarianism or Democracy in Latin America? Authoritarianism and the Southern Cone After reading Collier and Chapter 3, there are some ideas about the construction of Authoritarian regimes in Latin America that I want to discuss.

Authoritarian rule in latin america

Latin America since the midth century The postwar world, —80 In Latin America as elsewhere, the close of World War II was accompanied by expectations, only partly fulfilled, of steady economic development and democratic consolidation.

Popular education also increased, as did exposure to the mass media and mass culture—which in light of the economic lag served to feed dissatisfaction. Military dictatorships and Marxist revolution were among the solutions put forward, but none were truly successful.

Economic agenda and patterns of growth The economic shocks delivered by the depression and two world wars, in combination with the strength of nationalismtilted economic policy after strongly toward internal development as against the outward orientation that had predominated since independence.

The outward policy had been partially undermined by the trade controls and industrial promotion schemes adopted essentially as defensive measures in the aftermath of the depression and during World War II.

They called for economic integration among the Latin American countries themselves, with a view to attaining economies of scale. And they recommended internal structural reforms to improve the economic performance of their countries, including land reform both to eliminate underutilized latifundios and to lessen the stark inequality of income distribution that was an obstacle to growth of the domestic market.

In the small Caribbean and Central American republics and also some of the smaller and poorer South American nations, the prospects for ISI were sorely limited by market size and other constraints, and governments still hesitated to promote manufacturing at the expense of traditional primary commodities.

Overvalued exchange rates, which hurt traditional exports, made it easier to import industrial machinery and equipment. Manufacturing costs generally remained high, and factories were overly dependent on imported inputs of all kinds including foreign capitalbut advances were not limited to Authoritarian rule in latin america goods production.

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In all major countries the output of intermediate and capital goods rose appreciably too. For example, in Argentina the state undertook construction of a steel industry, and in numerous other ways national governments further expanded their economic role.

Starting in with agreements fostering economic union, such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Central American Common Marketand continuing with the Andean Pact ofsome progress was made toward regional economic integrationbut the commitment to eliminate trade barriers was not as strong as in postwar Europe.

Intra-Latin American trade increased, but probably not much more than would have happened without special agreements. In any case, quantitative economic growth was visible almost everywhere. It was evident even when expressed as per capita GDP—that is, factoring in a population growth that in most countries was accelerating, because death rates had finally begun to fall sharply while birth rates remained high.

In the s in much of Latin America the annual rate of population increase came to exceed 3 percent. But there were clear differences in economic performance among countries.

Authoritarian rule in latin america

Brazil, with a diversified economic base and much the largest internal marketand Panamawith its canal-based service economy, posted the best records, their GDP per capita doubling between and ; Mexico and Venezuela did almost as well, as did Costa Rica.

But the Argentine economy seemed to stagnate, and few countries scored significant gains. Moreover, the conviction eventually grew in countries where ISI had been vigorously pushed that the easy gains in replacement of imports were coming to an end and that, to maintain adequate growth, it would be necessary to renew emphasis on exports as well.

World market conditions were favourable for a revival of export promotion; indeed, international trade had begun a rapid expansion at the very time that inward-directed growth was gaining converts in Latin America.

The promotion of industrial exports was slow to appear. Brazil was the most successful, selling automobiles and automotive parts mainly to other less-developed countries but at times even to the industrial world.

In other instances Latin Americans tried to develop new, nontraditional primary commodity exports. It also assumed a leading role in the illicit narcotics trade.

Developments in social policy Continued advances in public health were the principal basis for the explosion of population growth, which in turn made more difficult the provision of other social services.

Nevertheless, educational coverage continued to expand, and state schools increased their share of students at the expense of private often church-affiliated institutions. Social security systems were introduced in countries that previously had none and expanded where they already existed.

Yet such benefits chiefly went to organized urban workers and members of the middle sectors so that the net effect was often to increase, rather than lessen, social inequality. Moreover, structural land reform received more lip service than actual implementation.

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The poor were also hurt by the high inflation that in the s and after became endemic in Brazil and the Southern Cone and was intermittently a problem elsewhere, resulting in considerable part from an inability or unwillingness to generate by taxation the fiscal resources needed for economic and social development programs.

The United States and Latin America in the Cold War era Whatever policies Latin American countries adopted in the postwar era, they had to take into account the probable reaction of the United States, now more than ever the dominant power in the hemisphere. It was the principal trading partner and source of loans, grants, and private investment for almost all countries, and Latin American leaders considered its favour worth having.

Authoritarian rule in latin america

Policy makers in Washington, on their part, were unenthusiastic about ISI and state-owned enterprises, but, as long as North American investors were not hindered in their own activities, the inward-directed policy orientation did not pose major problems.

A threat developed in Central America when the Guatemalan government of Jacobo Arbenz —54which frankly accepted the support of local communists, attacked the holdings of the United Fruit Company as part of an ambitious though ultimately abortive land reform.Latin America has produced a variety of genres born at the crossroads of European folk music, African music and native traditions.

While not as popular as the popular music of the USA (also born out of the integration of European music and African music), Latin American genres shares the same characters that made it a universal koine'. Authoritarian rule in Latin America, Case study of Argentina by Michael Sowa September 6, · by castillo · in Week 3: Authoritarianism and the Southern Cone Authoritarianism is system of undemocratic government in which value is placed on order and control over personal freedom.

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After reading Collier and Chapter 3, there are some ideas about the construction of Authoritarian regimes in Latin America that I want to discuss. In This Article Military Government in Latin America, – Introduction; General Treatments and Comparative Studies; Stepan and Nunn question whether the concept “bureaucratic-authoritarian” was useful, Karen L.

Military Rule in Latin America. Boston: Unwin Hyman, Whether it is a caudillo, a charismatic boss with an armed following, or a general leading a golpe de estado or an authoritarian institution, Latin America is conceived as an authoritarian region always ruled by either military or civilian leaders.

Democracy belongs to no single nation, but rather it is the birthright of every person in every nation. That’s why the National Endowment for Democracy works in all corners of the globe, supporting democracy activists on six continents and in 90 countries.

authoritarianism | Definition & Facts | kaja-net.com