These interventions have sometimes involved formal procedures or rituals, and often included the extended family as well as non- kin members of the community see for example Ho'oponopono. Following the emergence of specialization in various societies, these interventions were often conducted by particular members of a community — for example, a chiefpriestphysicianand so on - usually as an ancillary function. Liebermann - who began seeing family members together for observation or therapy sessions.
Contained in each causal explanation for child abuse is a theory of etiology. The nature and quality of our knowledge is approached in this paper from a review of studies of the impact of abuse on children, for which a critique of methodology is given.
The relation between theory construction, study, and clinical action is addressed. Recommendations with respect to the focus and content of future research are made. Definition and Prevalence Child abuse has been noted to have many causes: Contained in each causal explanation is a theory of etiology.
Clinicians are frequently frustrated by the limited focus and use of the diverse theories on child abuse. In order to select which factors to study, researchers must exclude other factors.
Clinicians, facing a variety of distinctive life events, personal characteristics, and unique circumstances of the families and children they serve, are not always content with the explanations for the origin of child abuse found in the research literature.
Child abuse and child neglect are catch-all euphemisms for a variety of childhood injuries that are believed to be derived from parental Cultural utility in psychodynamic theory of omission or commission.
The diagnostic tags focus attention on symptoms and propose entirely too simple formulations of etiology. In this paper, child abuse refers to the many problems suggested by child abuse and child neglect.
This is to focus more on the causes than on the manifestations of child maltreatment. Department of Health and Human Services, overreports were received.
This represented a fold increase in the course of a decade. Although the true prevalence of child abuse is unknown, the concern regarding the consequences of abuse is, for individuals and for our society, universal. We address at the outset of this paper what we know of the impact of child maltreatment 01J the child.
From this discussion will emerge a general impression of the nature and quality of our knowledge, with focus on theory and methodology of study.
Impact of Abuse on Children The clinical literature on child abuse contains many assumptions about the consequences of child abuse for the victim, his or her family, and society.
For example, Schmitt and Kempe assert that the dangers of child abuse extend beyond harm to the victim: Such concerns on the part of clinicians derive in part from the frequently noted multigenerational nature of identified clinical cases of child abuse: In adulthood, the parents may have more frequent drug and alcohol abuse, criminal behavior, and psychiatric disturbance Smith et al.
Concerns about the developmental sequelae of child abuse are also supported by the observations of psychiatric workers on the behavior of small numbers of abused children in clinical and laboratory settings Galdston ; Martin et al.
Left open in the discussion, and unfortunately not susceptible to definitive analysis in this sample, is the extent to which the preferential selection of poor children both for reporting for maltreatment and for delinquency may have affected the perceived association and the extent to which poverty per se may have determined both problems.
Such an analysis would best be conducted on a sample generalizable to all maltreated children in New York and controlled for certain potentially confounding attributes Newberger and Daniel, In the single controlled study referenced above Smith et al.
Abusive parents were found to have a number of social and psychiatric problems in relation to the comparison group, but the contribution of a critical third factor, poverty, could not be extricated from the case-control differences because the cases were significantly poorer than the controls.
The New York State study, though impressive in numbers and worrisome in conclusions, is further difficult to interpret because it is both biased to favor poor children for selection, and uncontrolled.
The contribution of Elmer a, b brings into focus the limited state of our understanding of the long-term effects of child maltreatment. Her findings suggest that we must attend to the social and familial circumstances which equally affected the outcomes of cases and controls. The startling paucity of case-control differences in this study is described with candor and humor: Across the board, there were very few differences between the groups, and these were relatively minor.
The follow-up staff was astonished and disbelieving. It then turned out that several of the examiners had kept a private tally, showing their opinions of the classifications of each child.Cultural Utility relates to the psychodynamic theory as it refers to the consideration of cultural diversity and the ability to transfer the theoretical aspects of this particular model so that it was understood and applicable to all cultures.
it has great utility. In addition, many of its main beliefs and ground in psychodynamic theory and practice. I believe it would still work well because of the lucid, organized ap- cultural studies. It displays his broad reading and his narrow language form, which is typical of this genre of theorists.
Sociocultural definition, of, relating to, or signifying the combination or interaction of social and cultural elements.
See more. Theory: an integrated set Environment refers the person’s significant others and physical surroundings as well as cultural, social, art and a science and saw the use of self by the nurse as the primary instrument in what she termed as psychodynamic nursing.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory is a well rounded view of life- span development, it incorporates important conflicts during each stage of development that most people can relate to .
BEHAVIOR THERAPY 28, , Behavior Therapy and a Culturally Diverse Society: Forging an Alliance GAYLE Y. IWAMASA Oklahoma State University As society continues to become increasingly culturally diverse, behavior therapy will need to adapt and develop in .