See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The late s through the s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field.
Rochester Institute of Technology This review describes the gender differences associated with depression. On the basis of strong and consistent evidence, women appear to have higher rates of depression than do men.
However, the explanation for this difference is not understood well. A series of topics further examined and analyzed, will provide possible explanations for these findings.
In addition experiments will be introduced to accompany and further support possible explanations. The specific difference in depression between women and men cannot be easily explained. In conclusion it seems likely that women are more susceptible to depression because of gender differences in roles, which have led to differences in the experience of life events.
This article reviews evidence and findings related to the severe susceptibility of depression in women over men.
Many different theories or potential explanations will be offered to better understand this phenomenon. A brief glossary of terms used in this article appears in Table 1. Although there are many theories that support why women are more susceptible to depression than men, consider that these are just theories, not facts.
In this theory gender, society, and parenting roles will illustrate that there are many gender differences influenced by environment which can lead to depression.
Therefore it can be concluded that the susceptibility of depression, is largely affected by environmental roles and must be taken into account for when comparing women Gender development research papers men.
Biological Differences The degree to which biological factors impinge on the severe susceptibility of depression in women over men is rather trivial; however it still provides a possible explanation for the occurrence.
Hormones and heredity factors are taken into account and provide some evidence of truth when comparing depression susceptibility between women and men.
Hormonal regulation largely affects the rate of depression in women. Estrogen depletion, also known as menopausal symptoms, illustrates increased depressive rates and vasomotor instability hot flashes. The increase in depression rates can also be attributed to, women feeling less womanly.
These thoughts can occur at menopausal stages because women become infertile and feel they have aged and are elderly. In addition it is true that men tend to value attractiveness and youth in their mates much more than do women.
Following the rules of evolution after a woman becomes infertile she is less desired by men because the purpose in having intercourse is to produce offspring. Both the many facts about hormones as well as the mind-set concerning menopause cause uncertainty as to what exactly produces the depression.
The indistinctness remains unsolved because it is virtually impossible to perform an experiment of having women separate their feelings of depression from menopausal states. To compare hormonal differences between men and women would be unfair.
It is certain that women experience many more hormonal changes than do men due to childbirth, premenstrual syndrome, menstruation, contraceptive drugs, postpartum period, and menopause. However, parallel to women, men do have symptoms similar to menopause, but are rather referred to as a "mid-life" crisis or depression.
It is almost impossible to explain why women are more susceptible than men to depression when referring to biological differences.
Hereditarily speaking genetic transmission may cause women to be more susceptible to depression. Two likely rationales will be given to support the hereditary theory and provide evidence that causes women to be more susceptible to depression. One possible genetic explanation is x-linkage; that is, the position of the relevant locus on the x chromosome.
A second possible genetic explanation involves the phenotype the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences of women.
This explanation hypothesizes that genetics and environmental influences together may result in the depression of women. An example of this hypothesis would be: Phenotypes affects men as well; however its affects are stronger in women.
This occurs because women have a higher tendency of awareness of their surroundings and are typically closely interconnected with their family members. It is evident that phenotypic traits influence the rate of depression.
However, as stated previously, the phenotype theory is just a possible explanation for the susceptibility of depression in women. There can not be definite conclusions, based on theoretical hypotheses.
Consistent findings indicate that adolescent girls develop depressive symptoms at an earlier age than do adolescent boys. Emerging gender differences can be caused by individual vulnerability, life stress, and pubertal transitional challenge.
This hypothesis will be further examined through the careful analysis of research and experimentation. The experiment had many hypotheses that were evaluated.
Girls will demonstrate higher average levels of depressive symptoms than adolescent boys will during adolescence.One-third of Commonwealth countries have yet to achieve universal primary education.
Of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS, 60 per cent are Commonwealth citizens. For 25 years, Gender & Development has published a range of voices from development research, policy and practice and feminist activists across the globe.
The journal publishes three issues a year on key themes. A unique journal aiming to inspire and support development policy and practice, for social justice and gender equality. The Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) is for children and young people, and their families, who experience difficulties in the development of their gender identity.
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