Lizards lay about on sun-warmed stones, blinking in contentment. Falcons circled lazily in the pale blue sky. The waters of the Suez Canal lapped gently at its sandy shores.
The Zionist militias gained the upper hand over the Palestinians through skill and pluck, aided considerably by intra-Arab rivalries. Arab forces from EgyptTransjordan JordanIraqSyriaand Lebanon occupied the areas in southern and eastern Palestine not apportioned to the Jews by the United Nations UN partition of Palestine and then captured east Jerusalemincluding the small Jewish quarter of the Old City, in an effort to forestall the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.
By early the Israelis managed to occupy all of the Negev up to the former Egypt-Palestine frontier, except for the Gaza Strip. Between February and Julyas a result of separate armistice agreements between Israel and each of the Arab states, a temporary frontier was fixed between Israel and its neighbours.
Nasser took a hostile stance toward Israel. In Nasser nationalized the Suez Canala vital waterway connecting Europe and Asia that was largely owned by French and British concerns. France and Britain responded by striking a deal with Israel—whose ships were barred from using the canal and whose southern port of Elat had been blockaded by Egypt—wherein Israel would invade Egypt; France and Britain would then intervene, ostensibly as peacemakers, and take control of the canal.
The Israelis were then in a position to open sea communications through the Gulf of Aqaba. Though Egyptian forces had been defeated on all fronts, the Suez Crisisas it is sometimes known, was seen by Arabs as an Egyptian victory.
Egypt dropped the blockade of Elat. A UN buffer force was placed in the Sinai Peninsula. In early Syria intensified its bombardment of Israeli villages from positions in the Golan Heights.
In May Egypt signed a mutual defense pact with Jordan. The Israeli victory on the ground was also overwhelming. Importantly, the Israelis were left in sole control of Jerusalem.
The Arab armies showed greater aggressiveness and fighting ability than in the previous wars, and the Israeli forces suffered heavy casualties. The Israeli army, however, reversed early losses and pushed its way into Syrian territory and encircled the Egyptian Third Army by crossing the Suez Canal and establishing forces on its west bank.
Israel and Egypt signed a cease-fire agreement in November and peace agreements on January 18, The accords provided for Israeli withdrawal into the Sinai west of the Mitla and Gidi passes, while Egypt was to reduce the size of its forces on the east bank of the canal.
A UN peacekeeping force was established between the two armies. This agreement was supplemented by another, signed on September 4, On May 31,Israel and Syria signed a cease-fire agreement that also covered separation of their forces by a UN buffer zone and exchange of prisoners of war.
On March 26,Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty formally ending the state of war that had existed between the two countries for 30 years. The two countries subsequently established normal diplomatic relations. The following day Israel invaded Lebanon, and by June 14 its land forces reached as far as the outskirts of Beirut, which was encircled; but the Israeli government agreed to halt its advance and begin negotiations with the PLO.
After much delay and massive Israeli shelling of west Beirut, the PLO evacuated the city under the supervision of a multinational force. Eventually, Israeli troops withdrew from west Beirut, and the Israeli army had withdrawn entirely from Lebanon by June In Israel and the PLO reached an agreement known as the Oslo Accords that involved mutual recognition and envisaged the gradual implementation of Palestinian self-government in the West Bank and Gaza Strip before a permanent peace settlement.
Violence ebbed and flowed in subsequent years, sometimes reaching the level of full-scale war between Israeli forces and Palestinian police and irregulars.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:CAIRO: Sudan is officially angered by a new Egyptian drama series ‘Abu Omar al-Masri’ and is calling for banning it on television channels during Ramadan. Major Israeli Wars Many people consider the following four military initiatives to have been the most significant in Israel's modern history: arab-israeli wars Since the United Nations partition of PALESTINE in and the establishment of the modern state of ISRAEL in , there have been four major Arab-Israeli wars (, , , and ) and numerous intermittent battles.
Encyclopedia of Jewish and Israeli history, politics and culture, with biographies, statistics, articles and documents on topics from anti-Semitism to Zionism.
With people seated, the mayor and four councilors entered the room. A film crew stood by to capture material for an upcoming TV documentary on the fraught relationship between the area’s.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel. The roots of the Arab–Israeli conflict are attributed to the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century.