Copyrightedslightly edited with permission by Gary Amirault, Introduction by Gary Amirault Ancient Greek and Roman poets, philosophers and statesmen such as Seneca, Polybius, Strabo, Plato, Plutarch, Timaeus Locrus, Chrysippus and Livy tell us they invented fables of Hell "Since the multitude is ever fickle, full of lawless desires, irrational passions and violence, there is no other way to keep them in order but by the fear and terror of the invisible world. Roman Catholicism borrowed its myths of Hell from the Romans, Greeks and Jews who, in turn, borrowed them from the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians. So if a hell of everlasting punishment is a myth invented by power hungry men trying to control the masses, how did the idea ever get into the Bible?
Please address correspondence to Dr. From Population and Environment: Life on Earth is driven by energy. Autotrophs take it from solar radiation and heterotrophs take it from autotrophs. Energy captured slowly by photosynthesis is stored up, and as denser reservoirs of energy have come into being over the course of Earth's history, heterotrophs that could use more energy evolved to exploit them, Homo sapiens is such a heterotroph; indeed, the ability to use energy extrasomatically outside the body enables human beings to use far more energy than any other heterotroph that has ever evolved.
The control of fire and the exploitation of fossil fuels have made it possible for Homo sapiens to release, in a short time, vast amounts of energy that accumulated long before the species appeared.
By using extrasomatic energy to modify more and more of its environment to suit human needs, the human population effectively expanded its resource base so that for long periods it has exceeded contemporary requirements.
This allowed an expansion of population similar to that of species introduced into extremely, propitious new habitats, such as rabbits in Australia or Japanese beetles in the United States. The world's present population of over 5.
But the exhaustion of fossil fuels, which supply three quarters of this energy, is not far off, and no other energy source is abundant and cheap enough to take their place. A collapse of the earth's human population cannot be more than a few years away.
If there are survivors, they will not be able to carry on the cultural traditions of civilization, which require abundant, cheap energy. It is unlikely, however, that the species itself can long persist without the energy whose exploitation is so much a part of its modus vivendi.
The human species may be seen as having evolved in the service of entropy, and it cannot be expected to outlast the dense accumulations of energy that have helped define its niche. Human beings like to believe they are in control of their destiny, but when the history of life on Earth is seen in perspective, the evolution of Homo sapiens is merely a transient episode that acts to redress the planet's energy balance.
Ever since Malthus, at least, it has been clear that means of subsistence do not grow as fast as population. No one has ever liked the idea that famine, plague, and war are nature's way of redressing the imbalance -- Malthus himself suggested that the operation of "preventive checks," which serve to reduce the birth rate, might help prolong the interval between such eventsvol.
But in the same two centuries world population has grown exponentially while irreplaceable resources were used up.
Some kind of adjustment is inevitable. Today, many people who are concerned about overpopulation and environmental degradation believe that human actions can avert catastrophe.
The prevailing view holds that a stable population that does not tax the environment's "carrying capacity" would be sustainable indefinitely, and that this state of equilibrium can be achieved through a combination of birth control, conservation, and reliance on "renewable" resources.
Unfortunately, worldwide implementation of a rigorous program of birth control is politically impossible.
Conservation is futile as long as population continues to rise. And no resources are truly renewable. If all of nature were in perfect balance, every species would have a constant population, sustained indefinitely at carrying capacity.
But the history of life involves competition among species, with new species evolving and old ones dying out. In this context, one would expect populations to fluctuate, and for species that have been studied, they generally do ecology texts such as Odum, and Ricklefs, give examples.
The notion of balance in nature is an integral part of traditional western cosmology. But science has found no such balance. According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, energy flows from areas of greater concentration to areas of lesser concentration, and local processes run down.
Living organisms may accumulate energy temporarily but in the fullness of time entropy prevails. While the tissue of life that coats the planet Earth has been storing up energy for over three billion years, it cannot do so indefinitely.
Sooner or later, energy that accumulates must be released. This is the bioenergetic context in which Homo sapiens evolved, and it accounts for both the wild growth of human population and its imminent collapse. There has been life on Earth for at least three and a half billion years, and over this time there has been a clear and constant evolution in the way energy is used.
The first living things may have obtained energy from organic molecules that had accumulated in their environment, but photosynthetic autotrophs, able to capture energy from sunlight, soon evolved, making it possible for life to escape this limited niche.
The existence of autotrophs made a place for heterotrophs, which use energy that has already been captured by autotrophs. It is not clear how photosynthesis got started, although it is a combination of two systems that can be found singly in some life forms that still exist.
But blue-green algae, which are among the earliest organisms documented in the fossil record, already employed the two-stage process that was eventually handed down to green plants. This is a complex sequence of events that has a simple outcome. Carbon dioxide of which there was an abundance in the earth's early atmosphere reacts with water through energy from light, fixing carbon and releasing oxygen, and a portion of the energy remains captive as long as the carbon and the oxygen remain apart.There Is No Smoke Without Fire Essay Sample “25 year old software engineer found brutally murdered and castrated outside Palika Bazaar.” A teacup dropped.
There Is No Smoke Without Fire. eHistory of biotechnology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. From its inception, biotechnology has maintained a close relationship with society.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate. Buddhist logico-epistemology is a term used in Western scholarship for pramāṇa-vāda (doctrine of proof) and Hetu-vidya (science of causes).
Pramāṇa-vāda is an epistemological study of the nature of knowledge; Hetu-vidya is a system of logic. These models developed in India during the 5th through 7th centuries.. The early Buddhists texts show that the historical Buddha was familiar with.
The best opinions, comments and analysis from The Telegraph. There Is No Smoke Without Fire Essay Sample “25 year old software engineer found brutally murdered and castrated outside Palika Bazaar.” A teacup dropped.